Malaligned outlet septum with subpulmonary ventricular septal defect and abnormal ventriculoarterial connection: a morphologic spectrum defined echocardiographically

J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990 Aug;16(2):459-68. doi: 10.1016/0735-1097(90)90603-m.


A retrospective analysis of 62 echocardiograms from 22 patients with malaligned outlet septum, subpulmonary ventricular septal defect and abnormal ventriculoarterial (VA) connection was performed and the results were confirmed by intraoperative inspection, cardiac catheterization and angiography, or pathologic specimen analysis in 21 of the 22 patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative incidence of the primary morphologic features; the correlation between the presence or absence of mitral valve to pulmonary valve fibrous continuity and the type of VA connection; the types and incidence of additional cardiovascular anomalies; and the correlation between the determination of the VA connection by echocardiography versus that ascertained at intraoperative and autopsy inspection. A spectrum of VA connections was found, ranging from double outlet right ventricle (23%) at one extreme, through an intermediate type (64%) in which the pulmonary artery was overriding the ventricular septum, thereby having no consistent and predominant connection to either ventricle, to a discordant VA connection (13%) at the opposite end of the spectrum. All three types of VA connection occurred whether or not there was mitral valve to pulmonary valve fibrous continuity. Additional cardiovascular anomalies were present in 95% of patients, the most common being aortic arch obstructive lesions in 59%, anomalous attachments of the atrioventricular valve tension apparatus in 55% and subaortic stenosis in 50%. A method of echocardiographic determination of the VA connection that correlated with that determined intraoperatively and from pathologic specimen analysis is described.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / diagnosis*
  • Aorta / abnormalities
  • Aortic Stenosis, Subvalvular / congenital
  • Aortic Stenosis, Subvalvular / diagnosis
  • Echocardiography*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / diagnosis*
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / diagnosis
  • Heart Ventricles / abnormalities
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pulmonary Artery / abnormalities
  • Pulmonary Valve / abnormalities
  • Retrospective Studies