Neurodynamics of relapse prevention: a neuronutrient approach to outpatient DUI offenders

J Psychoactive Drugs. 1990 Apr-Jun;22(2):173-87. doi: 10.1080/02791072.1990.10472542.


The central nervous system rewarding properties of ethanol, cocaine, and heroin may activate a common catecholaminergic reward system in the mesolimbic circuitry of the brain. Driving-under-the-influence (DUI) offenders with either alcohol- or cocaine-related problems were studied. The neuronutrients SAAVE and Tropamine significantly reduced relapse rates and enhanced recovery in these DUI outpatient offenders over a 10-week period. Follow-up on both the SAAVE and Tropamine groups after 10 months revealed a 73% and a 53% overall recovery rate, respectively. These clinical results favor the use of these neuronutrients as adjuncts to psychological therapeutic modalities.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alcoholism / diagnosis
  • Alcoholism / therapy*
  • Amino Acids / therapeutic use
  • Automobile Driving*
  • Cocaine
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Minerals / therapeutic use
  • Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*
  • Recurrence
  • Substance-Related Disorders / diagnosis
  • Substance-Related Disorders / therapy*
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use


  • Amino Acids
  • Minerals
  • Tropamine
  • Vitamins
  • Cocaine