Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) superfamily. BMPs mediate a highly conserved signal transduction cascade through the type-I and type-II serine/threonine kinase receptors and intracellular Smad proteins, which regulate multiple developmental and homeostatic processes. Mutations in this pathway can cause various diseases in humans, such as skeletal disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and various cancers. Multiple levels of regulation, including extracellular regulation, help to ensure proper spatiotemporal control of BMP signaling in the right cellular context. The family of repulsive guidance molecules (RGMs) and the type-I transmembrane protein neogenin, a paralog of DCC (Deleted in Colorectal Cancer), have been implicated in modulating the BMP pathway. In this review, we discuss the properties and functions of RGM proteins and neogenin, focusing on their roles in the modulation of BMP signal transduction.
© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.