Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extract inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced procoagulant and pro-inflammatory factors in cultured vascular endothelial cells

Br J Nutr. 2013 Dec;110(12):2201-6. doi: 10.1017/S0007114513001669. Epub 2013 Jun 7.


Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) has been used for many centuries in traditional Indian Ayurvedic formulations for the prevention and treatment of many inflammatory diseases. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties of amla fruit extract. The amla fruit extract potentially and significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor expression and von Willebrand factor release in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro at clinically relevant concentrations (1-100 μg/ml). In a leucocyte adhesion model of inflammation, it also significantly decreased LPS-induced adhesion of human monocytic cells (THP-1) to the HUVEC, as well as reduced the expression of endothelial-leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin) in the target cells. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in a LPS-induced endotoxaemia rat model. Oral administration of the amla fruit extract (50 mg/kg body weight) significantly decreased the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6 in serum. These results suggest that amla fruit extract may be an effective anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory agent.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Anticoagulants / pharmacology*
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use
  • Cell Adhesion / drug effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • E-Selectin / blood
  • Endothelial Cells / drug effects*
  • Endothelial Cells / metabolism
  • Endotoxemia / blood
  • Endotoxemia / drug therapy*
  • Fruit
  • Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Male
  • Monocytes / drug effects
  • Phyllanthus emblica*
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Thromboplastin / metabolism
  • von Willebrand Factor / metabolism


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Anticoagulants
  • Cytokines
  • E-Selectin
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Von Willebrand antigen
  • von Willebrand Factor
  • Thromboplastin