The conserved Prp19 complex (Prp19C) - also known as NineTeen Complex (NTC) - functions in several processes of paramount importance for cellular homeostasis. NTC/Prp19C was discovered as a complex that functions in splicing and more specifically during the catalytic activation of the spliceosome. More recent work revealed that NTC/Prp19C plays a role in transcription elongation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in genome maintenance in higher eukaryotes. In addition, mouse PRP19 might ubiquity late proteins targeted for degradation and guide them to the proteasome. Furthermore, NTC/Prp19C has been implicated in lipid droplet biogenesis. In the future, the molecular function of NTC/Prp19C in all of these processes needs to be refined or elucidated. Most of NTC/Prp19C's functions have been shown in only one or few organisms. However, since this complex is highly conserved it is likely that it has the same functions across all species. Moreover, one NTC/Prp19C or different subcomplexes could function in the above-mentioned processes. Intriguingly, NTC/Prp19C might link these different processes to ensure an optimal coordination of cellular processes. Thus, many important questions about the functions of this interesting complex remain to be investigated. In this review we discuss the different functions of NTC/Prp19C focusing on the novel and emerging ones as well as open questions.
Keywords: DNA repair; NineTeen Complex (NTC); Protein degradation; Prp19 splicing complex (Prp19C); TREX; Transcription.
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