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. 2013 Jun 6;14(6):12205-21.
doi: 10.3390/ijms140612205.

Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina Maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

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Free PMC article

Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina Maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

Woon Yong Choi et al. Int J Mol Sci. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Cytotoxicity of the extracts of S. maxima cultivated in SW and DSW on the normal cell line, HEK 293. SW and DSW extracts were extracted at 100 °C. Mean ± SD from triplicate separated experiments are shown. (SW: seawater, DSW: deep-sea water).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Inhibition of human stomach adenocarcinoma (AGS) (bar chart, percent) and selectivity (line chart) after adding 1.0 mg/mL of the extract of S. maxima cultivated in SW and DSW. Mean ± S.D. from triplicate separated experiments are shown. Each value were compared with the control at * p < 0.01, ** p < 0.005, *** p < 0.001 by Student t-test. (SW: seawater, DSW: deep-sea water).
Figure 3
Figure 3
The expression of Bcl-2 in A549 cells after adding 1.0 mg/mL of the extract of S. maxima grown in different media. (SW: seawater, DSW: deep-sea water).
Figure 4
Figure 4
The growth (bar chart, percent) and secretion (line chart) of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) from human B cell after the adding 1.0 mg/mL of the water extract of S. maxima cultivated in SW and DSW. Mean ± S.D. from triplicate separated experiments are shown. Each value were compared with the control at * p < 0.01, ** p < 0.005, *** p < 0.001 by Student t-test. (SW: seawater, DSW: deep-sea water).
Figure 5
Figure 5
The NK cell growth after the addition of supernatants from T cells that were treated with the water extract of S. maxima cultivated in SW and DSW. Mean ± S.D. from triplicate separated experiments are shown. (SW: seawater, DSW: deep-sea water).
Figure 6
Figure 6
Comparison of the HPLC chromatograms for the water extract of S. maxima cultivated in seawater (a) and deep-sea water (b).

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