Treatment of femoroacetabular impingement: a systematic review

Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2013 Sep;6(3):207-18. doi: 10.1007/s12178-013-9172-0.


The purpose of this review is to determine if there is a difference in outcomes after: (1) nonsurgical vs surgical treatment of FAI; (2a) surgical dislocation with greater trochanteric osteotomy, (2b) anterior mini-open, (2c) arthroscopic plus mini-open, and (2d) arthroscopic surgery for FAI; (3) difference in complication and re-operation rates; and (4a) labral refixation and (4b) labral debridement for labral injuries. A systematic review of multiple databases was performed after PROSPERO registration and using PRISMA guidelines. Level I-IV evidence clinical studies with minimum 2-year follow-up were included. Data were compared using 2-sample and 2-proportion Z-test calculators. Study methodological quality was analyzed using Modified Coleman Methodology Score (MCMS). Recommendations were made using SORT (Strength Of Recommendation Taxonomy). Twenty-nine studies were included (2369 subjects; 2507 hips). MCMS was poor. Mean subject age was 34.4+/-8.4 years and mean follow-up was 3.1+/-0.9 years. Statistically significant differences were observed following both nonsurgical and surgical treatment, with greater (P < 0.05) improvements following surgery (SORT B), without consistent significant differences observed between different surgical techniques (SORT C). There was a greater (P < 0.05) reoperation and complication rate following surgical dislocation vs mini-open and arthroscopic techniques (SORT A). Clinical outcomes were significantly better (P < 0.05) following labral refixation vs debridement (SORT B). Outcomes of operative treatment of femoroacetabular impingement are significantly better than nonsurgical management. Surgical treatment significantly improves outcomes, with no consistent significant differences exhibited between open and arthroscopic techniques. Open surgical dislocation has significantly greater reoperation and complication rates vs mini-open and arthroscopic techniques. Outcomes of labral refixation are significantly better than debridement in patients with labral injuries.