Background & aims: Dysregulated Ca(2+) homeostasis likely contributes to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease-associated loss of bone mineral density. Experimental colitis leads to decreased expression of Klotho, a protein that supports renal Ca(2+) reabsorption by stabilizing the transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5) channel on the apical membrane of distal tubule epithelial cells.
Methods: Colitis was induced in mice via administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) or transfer of CD4(+)interleukin-10(-/-) and CD4(+), CD45RB(hi) T cells. We investigated changes in bone metabolism, renal processing of Ca(2+), and expression of TRPV5.
Results: Mice with colitis had normal serum levels of Ca(2+) and parathormone. Computed tomography analysis showed a decreased density of cortical and trabecular bone, and there was biochemical evidence for reduced bone formation and increased bone resorption. Increased fractional urinary excretion of Ca(2+) was accompanied by reduced levels of TRPV5 protein in distal convoluted tubules, with a concomitant increase in TRPV5 sialylation. In mouse renal intermedullary collecting duct epithelial (mIMCD3) cells transduced with TRPV5 adenovirus, the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, and interleukin-1β reduced levels of TRPV5 on the cell surface, leading to its degradation. Cytomix induced interaction between TRPV5 and UBR4 (Ubiquitin recoginition 4), an E3 ubiquitin ligase; knockdown of UBR4 with small interfering RNAs prevented cytomix-induced degradation of TRPV5. The effects of cytokines on TRPV5 were not observed in cells stably transfected with membrane-bound Klotho; TRPV5 expression was preserved when colitis was induced with TNBS in transgenic mice that overexpressed Klotho or in mice with T-cell transfer colitis injected with soluble recombinant Klotho.
Conclusions: After induction of colitis in mice via TNBS administration or T-cell transfer, tumor necrosis factor and interferon-γ reduced the expression and activity of Klotho, which otherwise would protect TRPV5 from hypersialylation and cytokine-induced TRPV5 endocytosis, UBR4-dependent ubiquitination, degradation, and urinary wasting of Ca(2+).
Keywords: 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid; ARE; AU-rich elements; BMD; FECa(2+); IBD; IFN; IL; Mouse Model; Osteoporosis; TNBS; TNF; TRPV5; UC; Ub; Ulcerative Colitis; bone mineral density; eGFP; enhanced green flourescent protein; fractional excretion of Ca(2+); inflammatory bowel disease; interferon; interleukin; mIMCD3; mRNA; messenger RNA; mouse renal intermedullary collecting duct epithelial cells; siRNA; small interfering RNA; transient receptor potential vanilloid 5; tumor necrosis factor; ubiquitin.
Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.