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. 2013 Jun 7;5(6):2093-113.
doi: 10.3390/nu5062093.

The Role of Viscosity and Fermentability of Dietary Fibers on Satiety- And Adiposity-Related Hormones in Rats

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Free PMC article

The Role of Viscosity and Fermentability of Dietary Fibers on Satiety- And Adiposity-Related Hormones in Rats

Natalia Schroeder et al. Nutrients. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Dietary fiber may contribute to satiety. This study examined the effect of two dietary fiber characteristics, small intestinal contents viscosity and large intestinal fermentability, on satiety-and adiposity-related hormones in rats. Diets contained fiber sources that were non-viscous, somewhat viscous, or highly viscous, and either highly fermentable or non-fermentable, in a 2 × 3 factorial design. In the fed state (2 h postprandial), rats fed non-fermentable fibers had significantly greater plasma GLP-1 concentration than fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, among non-fermentable fibers, viscosity had no effect on GLP-1 concentration. However, among fermentable fibers, greater viscosity reduced GLP-1 concentration. Plasma peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) concentrations in the fasted state were not influenced by the fermentability of the fiber overall, however animals consuming a fructooligosaccharide greater PYY concentration. In both the fed and fasted states, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma ghrelin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma leptin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. Thus, fermentability and viscosity of dietary fiber interacted in complex ways to influence satiety- and adiposity-related plasma hormone concentrations. However, the results suggest that highly viscous, non-fermentable fibers may limit weight gain and reduce adiposity and non-fermentable fibers, regardless of viscosity, may promote meal termination.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Dietary fiber types used in the experimental diets to produce a range of intestinal viscosities, with or without large intestinal fermentation. Each fiber type was present in the diets at 5%.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Effect of dietary fiber viscosity and fermentability on plasma GLP-1 concentrations in the fasted state (A) and fed state (B). Values are mean ± SEM, n = 10–12 per group. Bars having different letters differ significantly (p < 0.05). In the fasted state, there was a significant viscosity by fermentability interaction (p = 0.041). In the fed state, there was a significant main effect of fermentability (p = 0.021). The non-fermentable fibers, in order of increasing viscosity were cellulose, LV-HPMC, and HV-HPMC. The fermentable fibers, in order of increasing viscosity, were scFOS, scFOS + RS, and βG.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Effect of dietary fiber viscosity and fermentability on plasma ghrelin concentrations in the fasted state (A) and fed state (B). Values are mean ± SEM, n = 10–12 per group. Bars having different letters differ significantly (p < 0.05). In the fasted state, there was a significant main effect of fermentability (p = 0.001). In the fed state there was also a significant main effect of fermentability (p = 0.006). The non-fermentable fibers, in order of increasing viscosity were cellulose, LV-HPMC, and HV-HPMC. The fermentable fibers, in order of increasing viscosity, were scFOS, scFOS + RS, and βG.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Effect of dietary fiber viscosity and fermentability on plasma PYY concentrations in the fasted state. Values are mean ± SEM, n = 10–12 per group. Bars having different letters differ significantly (p < 0.05). There was a significant viscosity by fermentability interaction (p =\ 0.001). The non-fermentable fibers, in order of increasing viscosity were cellulose, LV-HPMC, and HV-HPMC. The fermentable fibers, in order of increasing viscosity, were scFOS, scFOS + RS, and βG.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Effect of dietary fiber viscosity and fermentability on plasma leptin concentrations in the fasted state (A) and fed state (B). Values are mean ± SEM, n = 10–12 per group. Bars having different letters differ significantly (p < 0.05). In the fasted state, there was a significant main effect of fermentability (p = 0.027). In the fed state, there were no significant main effects of fermentation or viscosity. The non-fermentable fibers, in order of increasing viscosity were cellulose, LV-HPMC, and HV-HPMC. The fermentable fibers, in order of increasing viscosity, were scFOS, scFOS + RS, and βG.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Effect of dietary fiber viscosity and fermentability on plasma insulin concentration in the fasted state (A) and fed state (B). Values are mean ± SEM, n = 10–12 per group. Bars having different letters differ significantly (p < 0.05). There were no significant main effects of fermentation or viscosity in either the fasted or fed states. The non-fermentable fibers, in order of increasing viscosity were cellulose, LV-HPMC, and HV-HPMC. The fermentable fibers, in order of increasing viscosity, were scFOS, scFOS + RS, and βG.

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