Guidelines for biomarker testing in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: a national consensus of the Spanish Society of Pathology and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology

Clin Transl Oncol. 2014 Mar;16(3):243-56. doi: 10.1007/s12094-013-1062-9. Epub 2013 Jun 8.


The annual incidence of neuroendocrine tumours in the Caucasian population ranges from 2.5 to 5 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours is a family of neoplasms widely variable in terms of anatomical location, hormone composition, clinical syndromes they cause and in their biological behaviour. This high complexity and clinical heterogeneity, together with the known difficulty of predicting their behaviour from their pathological features, are reflected in the many classifications that have been developed over the years in this field. This article reviews the main tissue and clinical biomarkers and makes recommendations for their use in medical practice. This document represents a consensus reached jointly by the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology (SEOM) and the Spanish Society of Pathology (SEAP).

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis*
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism


  • Biomarkers, Tumor