Microtubules continue to be one of the most successful anticancer drug targets and a favorite hit for many naturally occurring molecules. While two of the most successful representative agents in clinical use, the taxanes and the vinca alkaloids, come from terrestrial sources, the sea has also proven to be a rich source of new tubulin-binding molecules. We describe herein the first isolation, structural elucidation and total synthesis of two totally new polyketides isolated from the Madagascan sponge Lithoplocamia lithistoides . Both PM050489 and PM060184 show antimitotic properties in human tumor cells lines at subnanomolar concentrations and display a distinct inhibition mechanism on microtubules. The development of an efficient synthetic procedure has solved the supply problem and, following pharmaceutical development, has allowed PM060184 to start clinical studies as a promising new drug for cancer treatment.