This systematic review analyzes the role of gender in the association between childhood maltreatment and substance use outcomes, among longitudinal papers published between 1995 and 2011. Ten papers examined gender as a moderating variable. Results on gender differences were mixed. When studies that found no gender effects were compared with studies that did identify gender effects, differences in measurement, sample composition, and developmental timing of outcomes were identified. This review also examines how gender effects are assessed. Implications and limitations of these findings are discussed. Areas for future research are identified.