The prospective clinical use of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) holds enormous promise for the treatment of a large number of degenerative and age-related diseases. In particular, autologous MSCs isolated from bone marrow (BM) are considered safe and have been extensively evaluated in clinical trials. Nevertheless, different efficacies have been reported, depending on the health status and age of the donor. In addition, the biological functions of BM-MSCs from patients with various diseases may be impaired. Furthermore, medical treatments such as long-term chemotherapy and immunomodulatory therapy may damage the BM microenvironment and affect the therapeutic potential of MSCs. Therefore, a number of practical problems must be addressed before autologous BM-MSCs can be widely applied with higher efficiency in patients. As such, this review focuses on various factors that directly influence the biological properties of BM-MSCs, and we discuss the possible mechanisms of these alterations.
Keywords: bone marrow; cell therapy; hematopoietic stem cell; mesenchymal stromal cell.
Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.