Chronic kidney disease and the foot in diabetes--is inflammation the missing link?

Nephron Clin Pract. 2013;123(1-2):36-40. doi: 10.1159/000351813. Epub 2013 Jun 6.


Diabetes is commonly complicated by the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Equally prevalent is the development of diabetic foot disease and it is now recognised that there is a higher risk of the development of foot disease and major amputation in those patients with CKD. This is particularly marked in those patients with end-stage kidney disease receiving renal replacement therapy for which there are many possible mechanisms, including the effect of dialysis on tissue hypoxia. What has been recognised recently is that the risk of the development of foot disease appears to start prior to the onset of renal replacement therapy. Whilst this may be due to the fact that the emphasis of care shifts towards the requirements of the patients' renal disease, here we discuss the possibility that the presence of a foot ulcer itself may contribute to the development or progression of CKD through repeated episodes of sepsis or chronic inflammation, or both.

MeSH terms

  • Causality
  • Comorbidity
  • Diabetic Foot / epidemiology*
  • Diabetic Foot / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / epidemiology*
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Models, Immunological*
  • Prevalence
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / immunology*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors