This study was designed to analyze the gender-related association between SCN1A polymorphisms (voltage-gated sodium channels; α-subunit) and time-to-recurrence (TTR) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with 5-fluoruracil (5-FU)-based adjuvant chemotherapy. We enrolled from a prospective database patients with stage II and III CRC treated with adjuvant 5-FU-based chemotherapy. Genotypes for SCN1A rs3812718 and rs229877 were determined by direct DNA sequencing. One hundred twenty-seven males and 107 females were included in the study. In the univariate and multivariate analysis, the shortest TTR was associated with female patients carrying the rs3812718-TT genotype (hazard ratio (HR): 2.26 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89, 5.70), P=0.039) but with male patients carrying the rs3812718-CC genotype (HR: 0.49 (95% CI: 0.18, 1.38), P=0.048). For rs229877 the CT genotype was associated with a trend for shorter TTR in both gender populations. The study validated gender-dependent association between genomic SCN1A rs3812718 polymorphism and TTR in CRC patients treated with adjuvant 5-FU-based chemotherapy. This study confirms that voltage-gated Na+ channels may be a potential therapeutic target and a useful predictive biomarker before 5-FU infusion.