Molar incisor hypomineralisation: prevalence and clinical presentation in school children of the northern region of India

Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2014 Feb;15(1):11-8. doi: 10.1007/s40368-013-0045-4. Epub 2013 Jun 11.


There is rarity of prevalence data on molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) for the Indian population and the majority of data originated from European countries.

Aim: To report on prevalence and defect characteristics of MIH for school children of the northern Indian region.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey including 1,792, 6-9-year-old school children of Chandigarh, India was carried out using European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) 2003 criteria for diagnosis of MIH. In addition to descriptive analysis for distribution of various defects, comparative data analysis was carried out for inter-comparison of distribution and type of defect amongst two phenotypes, MH [first permanent molar (FPMs) involvement] and M + IH (simultaneous involvement of molars and incisors). Similar comparative analysis was performed for four subgroups on the basis of number of affected surfaces/subjects.

Results: A prevalence of 6.31% was reported. FPMs (2.83 ± 0.874/subject) were more commonly affected than permanent incisors (1.19 ± 1.614/subjects). White/creamy opacity without post-eruptive breakdown (PEB) was the most common lesion, seen in 85% of subjects. MH phenotype was seen in 44% of subjects and 56% exhibited M + IH phenotype. A trend toward greater severity was seen in M + IH phenotype when compared to MH phenotype. A greater number of surfaces presented with white/creamy opacities without PEB (p < 0.05). With an increase in the number of surfaces involved the severity of MIH also increased with more frequent presence of brown defects with PEB.

Conclusion: With concomitant involvement of incisors, more severe presentation of MIH was seen. Also, with increase in number of affected surfaces a parallel increase in severity as well as extent of lesions was observed.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dental Enamel / abnormalities
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / classification
  • Dental Enamel Hypoplasia / epidemiology*
  • Dental Restoration, Permanent / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incisor / pathology
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Molar / pathology
  • Phenotype
  • Prevalence