Prostaglandins (PG) are the product of a cascade of enzymes such as cyclooxygenases and PG synthases. Among PG, PGE2 is produced by 3 isoforms of PGE synthase (PGES) and through activation of its cognate receptors (EP1-4), this PG is involved in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases. Some anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) interfere with its metabolism or effects. Vascular cells can initiate many of the responses associated with inflammation. In human vascular tissue, PGE2 is involved in many physiological processes, such as increasing vascular permeability, cell proliferation, cell migration and control of vascular smooth muscle tone. PGE2 has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysm but also in physiologic/adaptive processes such as angiogenesis. Understanding the roles of PGE2 and its cognate receptors in vascular diseases could help to identify diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, from these recent studies new promising therapeutic approaches like mPGES-1 inhibition and/or EP4-antagonism should be investigated.
Keywords: Aneurysm; Angiogenesis; Artery; Atherosclerosis; Cancer; Cyclooxygenase; Inflammation; PGE(2); Prostaglandin; Prostanoids; Vascular.
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