The pathology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is complex; multiple biological pathways have been implicated, including, but not limited to, inflammation and oxidative stress. Biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress may serve to help identify patients at risk for CVD, to monitor the efficacy of treatments, and to develop new pharmacological tools. However, due to the complexities of CVD pathogenesis there is no single biomarker available to estimate absolute risk of future cardiovascular events. Furthermore, not all biomarkers are equal; the functions of many biomarkers overlap, some offer better prognostic information than others, and some are better suited to identify/predict the pathogenesis of particular cardiovascular events. The identification of the most appropriate set of biomarkers can provide a detailed picture of the specific nature of the cardiovascular event. The following review provides an overview of existing and emerging inflammatory biomarkers, pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidant biomarkers. The functions of each biomarker are discussed, and prognostic data are provided where available.
Keywords: Biomarkers; Cardiovascular disease; Chemokines; Cytokines; Inflammation; Oxidative stress.
Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.