Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease caused by CFTR gene mutations, with clinical expression similar to complex disease, influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Among the possible modifier genes, those associated to metabolic pathways of glutathione (GSH) have been considered as potential modulators of CF clinical severity. In this way it is of pivotal importance investigate gene polymorphisms at Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase, Catalytic Subunit (GCLC), Glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1), Glutathione S-transferase Theta 1 (GSTT1), and Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), which have been associated to the GSH metabolic pathway and CF clinical severity.
Method: A total of 180 CF's patients were included in this study, which investigated polymorphisms in GCLC and GST genes (GCLC -129C>T and -3506A>G; GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes deletion, and GSTP1*+313A>G) by PCR and PCR-RFLP associating to clinical variables of CF severity, including variables of sex, clinical scores [Shwachman-Kulczycki, Kanga e Bhalla (BS)], body mass index, patient age, age for diagnosis, first clinical symptoms, first colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, sputum's microorganisms, hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the blood, spirometry and comorbidities. The CFTR genotype was investigated in all patients, and the genetic interaction was performed using MDR2.0 and MDRPT0.4.7 software.
Results: The analysis of multiple genes in metabolic pathways in diseases with variable clinical expression, as CF disease, enables understanding of phenotypic diversity. Our data show evidence of interaction between the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes deletion, and GSTP1*+313A>G polymorphism with CFTR gene mutation classes, and BS (Balance testing accuracy=0.6824, p=0.008), which measures the commitment of bronchopulmonary segments by tomography.
Conclusion: Polymorphisms in genes associated with metabolism of GSH act on the CF's severity.