Urinary bladder control during the first 3 years of life in healthy children in Vietnam--a comparison study with Swedish children

J Pediatr Urol. 2013 Dec;9(6 Pt A):700-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.04.022. Epub 2013 Jun 10.


Objectives: To study outcomes of early potty training in a population of healthy children with a tradition of early potty training and to compare these findings with a group of children to whom potty training was applied later.

Subjects and methods: Mothers and their 47 healthy children in Vietnam participated in this longitudinal study. The voiding pattern and emptying ability were followed by the 4-h voiding observation method from 3 months to 3 years of age. A comparison is made with a group of 57 Swedish children investigated in a similar manner.

Results: In the group of Vietnamese children, 89% were on daily potty training at the age of 6 months. At the age of 24 months, potty training was complete for 98%. In the Swedish group, just a few (5%) had started daily potty training by the age of 24 months (p < 0.001). The Vietnamese group had fewer voidings and lower voided volumes than the Swedish group. In the Vietnamese children, bladder emptying could be regarded as having been completed, with no residual urine at 9 months, compared with the Swedish group, which first showed complete emptying at the age of 36 months.

Conclusion: Potty training performed daily affects the emptying ability positively. In the Vietnamese group, no residual urine was found at the age of 9 months. These results differ significantly from those of the group of Swedish children.

Keywords: Bladder; Children; Signs; Urination.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Reference Values
  • Sweden
  • Toilet Training*
  • Urinary Bladder / physiology*
  • Urination / physiology*
  • Vietnam