The biological activity of propolis-containing toothpaste on oral health environment in patients who underwent implant-supported prosthodontic rehabilitation

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:704947. doi: 10.1155/2013/704947. Epub 2013 May 14.


The soft and periodontal tissues surrounding dental implants are particularly susceptible to bacteria invasion and inflammatory reactions due to complex histological structures. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of a propolis-containing hygienic agent on selected oral health parameters, oral microflora, and the condition of periodontal health. Sixteen subjects who underwent an oral rehabilitation with dental implants were selected and randomly assigned into two groups, which received a newly formulated propolis-containing toothpaste (3% (CA)) or a negative control without an active ingredient (CC). Approximal plaque index (API), oral hygiene index (OHI, debris component), and sulcus bleeding index (SBI) were assessed in three subsequent stages. During the first and last examinations, the swabs were employed for microbiological inoculation. Propolis-containing toothpaste was found to be distinctively effective in improving oral health and the occurrence of gingivitis triggered by dental plaque. The qualitative and quantitative changes in oral bacteria spectrum were observed. Antibacterial measures containing propolis might be used as a natural adjuvant to other active substances in individuals with a high risk of periodontal problems against pathogenic oral microflora.