1. The actions of the new skeletal muscle relaxant chandonium (HS310) on the cardiovascular, respiratory and skeletal muscle systems of the cat under chloralose anaesthesia and on chick and rat isolated skeletal muscle preparations have been described. 2. In the cat chandonium exhibited a potent, competitive, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking action that was rapid in onset and of short duration. It possessed a selective atropine-like action at the cardiac vagus neuro-effector junction but little or no ganglion blocking activity. Neither adrenergic neurone noralpha-adrenoceptor blocking properties were evident. 3. Unlike tubocurarine, chandonium was without effect on the airways system of the anaesthetized cat. 4. Chandonium possessed weak anticholinesterase action. It is conceivable that this effect may contribute to its short duration of action. 5. The results from these studies suggest that chandonium may have possible clinical applications as a short-acting muscle relaxant.