Live attenuated tularemia vaccines: recent developments and future goals

Vaccine. 2013 Aug 2;31(35):3485-91. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.05.096. Epub 2013 Jun 10.


In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax attacks in the U.S., numerous efforts were made to increase the level of preparedness against a biological attack both in the US and worldwide. As a result, there has been an increase in research interest in the development of vaccines and other countermeasures against a number of agents with the potential to be used as biological weapons. One such agent, Francisella tularensis, has been the subject of a surge in the level of research being performed, leading to a substantial increase in knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms of the organism and the induced immune responses. This information has facilitated the development of multiple new Francisella vaccine candidates. Herein we review the latest live attenuated F. tularensis vaccine efforts. Historically, live attenuated vaccines have demonstrated the greatest degree of success in protection against tularemia and the greatest promise in recent efforts to develop of a fully protective vaccine. This review summarizes recent live attenuated Francisella vaccine candidates and the lessons learned from those studies, with the goal of collating known characteristics associated with successful attenuation, immunogenicity, and protection.

Keywords: Francisella tularensis; LVS; Live attenuated vaccines; Schu S4.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Vaccines / immunology*
  • Bacterial Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • Biological Warfare Agents
  • Francisella tularensis / genetics
  • Francisella tularensis / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Tularemia / immunology
  • Tularemia / prevention & control*
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / immunology*
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / therapeutic use


  • Bacterial Vaccines
  • Biological Warfare Agents
  • Vaccines, Attenuated