Neonatal mortality in HIV-exposed infants born to women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Rural Uganda

J Trop Pediatr. 2013 Dec;59(6):441-6. doi: 10.1093/tropej/fmt044. Epub 2013 Jun 13.


As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women gain access to combination antiretroviral therapy throughout sub-Saharan Africa, a growing number of infants are being born HIV-exposed but uninfected. Data about neonatal mortality and the impact of premature delivery, in this population are limited. We describe the 28-day mortality outcomes in a cohort of HIV-exposed infants who had ultrasound-confirmed gestational age in rural Uganda. There were 13 deaths among 351 infants, including 9 deaths in the perinatal period. Premature delivery was a strong predictor of mortality. The prevention of HIV transmission to infants is now possible in rural low-resource settings but the frequency of neonatal death among HIV-exposed infants remains extremely high, calling for new comprehensive interventions to reduce mortality in this growing population.

Keywords: Africa; HIV; mortality; neonatal; prematurity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / adverse effects*
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gestational Age
  • HIV Infections / diagnosis
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control
  • HIV Infections / transmission
  • HIV-1
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Mortality*
  • Infant, Premature
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / diagnosis
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / drug therapy*
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Premature Birth
  • Prospective Studies
  • Rural Population / statistics & numerical data
  • Survival Analysis
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Uganda / epidemiology


  • Anti-Retroviral Agents