As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women gain access to combination antiretroviral therapy throughout sub-Saharan Africa, a growing number of infants are being born HIV-exposed but uninfected. Data about neonatal mortality and the impact of premature delivery, in this population are limited. We describe the 28-day mortality outcomes in a cohort of HIV-exposed infants who had ultrasound-confirmed gestational age in rural Uganda. There were 13 deaths among 351 infants, including 9 deaths in the perinatal period. Premature delivery was a strong predictor of mortality. The prevention of HIV transmission to infants is now possible in rural low-resource settings but the frequency of neonatal death among HIV-exposed infants remains extremely high, calling for new comprehensive interventions to reduce mortality in this growing population.
Keywords: Africa; HIV; mortality; neonatal; prematurity.