The gut microbiota composition has been associated with several hallmarks of metabolic syndrome (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis). Growing evidence suggests that gut microbes contribute to the onset of the low-grade inflammation characterising these metabolic disorders via mechanisms associated with gut barrier dysfunctions. Recently, enteroendocrine cells and the endocannabinoid system have been shown to control gut permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia. Moreover, targeted nutritional interventions using non-digestible carbohydrates with prebiotic properties have shown promising results in pre-clinical studies in this context, although human intervention studies warrant further investigations. Thus, in this review, we discuss putative mechanisms linking gut microbiota and type 2 diabetes. These data underline the advantage of investigating and changing the gut microbiota as a therapeutic target in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
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