Introduction: Glutathione is a major endogenous antioxidant and its deficiency is implicated in the etiology and progression of a number of human diseases. Vitamin D is important for the prevention of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and some cancers. Using a monocyte cell model, this study examined the hypothesis that vitamin D upregulate glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLC) and glutathione reductase (GR), which catalyzes GSH biosynthesis.
Methods: U937 monocytes were pretreated with and without 1,25 (OH)₂ vitamin D (10-25 nM) for 24 h and then exposed to control and high glucose (HG, 25 mM) for 4h. Levels of GSH determined using HPLC; GR activity by oxidation of NADPH; GCLC protein, MCP-1 and IL-8 using ELISA kits.
Results: 1,25 (OH)₂ vitamin D supplementation significantly upregulated expression of GCLC and GR, levels of GCLC protein and GR activity, and formation of GSH in control and HG-treated monocytes. 1,25 (OH)₂ vitamin D caused significantly (p<0.05) lower secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1, and lower ROS levels in monocytes exposed to control and HG-treated monocytes.
Conclusions: This study demonstrates a positive link between vitamin D and GSH levels, and that some beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation may be mediated by an improvement in the cellular GSH levels and a decrease in ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Keywords: Diabetes; GCLC; GCLM; GR; GSH; Glutamate cysteine ligase; Glutathione reductase; ROS; Vitamin D; glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic unit; glutamate cysteine ligase modulatory unit; glutathione; glutathione reductase; reactive oxygen species.
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