A history of victimization and violence perpetration are well-established risk factors that hamper positive development in early adulthood, yet their separate and overlapping effects are rarely examined simultaneously, confounding understanding of their relative impacts. This study follows a diverse sample of at-risk adolescents (N=570) into early adulthood, comparing roles and resources, stress and distress, and maladaptive behaviors for those with a history of no violence, victimization only, perpetration only, and both perpetration and victimization. Results demonstrate four distinctive profiles, although all violence-exposed youth report more problems in the three assessed domains relative to those with no violence histories. Implications for intervention are discussed.
Keywords: Early adulthood; development; victimization; violence.