Background/aims: Impaired left ventricular diastolic function and increased left ventricular filling pressure are frequently noted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), even in early stages. The association of increased left ventricular filling pressure with cardiovascular and renal outcomes remains uncertain in CKD. This study is designed to assess whether the ratio of transmitral E-wave velocity (E) to early diastole mitral velocity (Ea) is associated with cardiovascular events and progression to dialysis in patients with CKD stages 3-5.
Methods: This longitudinal study enrolled 356 predialysis CKD patients. Cardiovascular events were defined as cardiovascular death, hospitalization for unstable angina, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ventricular tachycardia, hospitalization for congestive heart failure, transient ischemia attack, and stroke. The renal endpoint was defined as commencement of dialysis. The relative cardiovascular events and renal endpoints risks were analyzed by Cox regression methods.
Results: The high E/Ea was independently associated with old age, cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, high systolic blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low hemoglobin, proteinuria, and worse echocardiographic profiles. Besides, the high E/Ea increased the risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio (HR) 1.067; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.017-1.119; p = 0.008) and progression to dialysis (HR 1.042; 95% CI 1.000-1.085; p = 0.048).
Conclusions: Our study in patients of CKD stages 3-5 demonstrated the high E/Ea was associated with increased cardiovascular events and progression to dialysis. Assessment of the E/Ea by Doppler echocardiography is useful for predicting the risk of adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes in CKD patients.
Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.