Lethal viral infections produce widespread inflammation with vascular leak, clotting, and bleeding (disseminated intravascular coagulation [DIC]), organ failure, and high mortality. Serine proteases in clot-forming (thrombotic) and clot-dissolving (thrombolytic) cascades are activated by an inflammatory cytokine storm and also can induce systemic inflammation with loss of normal serine protease inhibitor (serpin) regulation. Myxomavirus secretes a potent anti-inflammatory serpin, Serp-1, that inhibits clotting factor X (fX) and thrombolytic tissue- and urokinase-type plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA) with anti-inflammatory activity in multiple animal models. Purified serpin significantly improved survival in a murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection in gamma interferon receptor (IFN-γR) knockout mice, a model for lethal inflammatory vasculitis. Treatment of MHV68-infected mice with neuroserpin, a mammalian serpin that inhibits only tPA and uPA, was ineffective. Serp-1 reduced virus load, lung hemorrhage, and aortic, lung, and colon inflammation in MHV68-infected mice and also reduced virus load. Neuroserpin suppressed a wide range of immune spleen cell responses after MHV68 infection, while Serp-1 selectively increased CD11c(+) splenocytes (macrophage and dendritic cells) and reduced CD11b(+) tissue macrophages. Serp-1 altered gene expression for coagulation and inflammatory responses, whereas neuroserpin did not. Serp-1 treatment was assessed in a second viral infection, mouse-adapted Zaire ebolavirus in wild-type BALB/c mice, with improved survival and reduced tissue necrosis. In summary, treatment with this unique myxomavirus-derived serpin suppresses systemic serine protease and innate immune responses caused by unrelated lethal viral infections (both RNA and DNA viruses), providing a potential new therapeutic approach for treatment of lethal viral sepsis.