Purpose: To examine the effects of three different frequencies of combined resistance and aerobic training on total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) in a group of older adults.
Methods: Seventy-two women, 60-74 yr old, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 d · wk(-1) of aerobic training and 1 d · wk(-1) of resistance training (1 + 1), 2 d · wk(-1) of aerobic training and 2 d · wk(-1) resistance training (2 + 2), or 3 d · wk(-1) of aerobic training and 3 d · wk(-1) of resistance training (3 + 3). Body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), feeling of fatigue, depression, and vigor (questionnaire), strength (one-repetition maximum), serum cytokines (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), maximal oxygen uptake (progressive treadmill test), resting energy expenditure, and TEE were measured before and after 16 wk of training. Aerobic training consisted of 40 min of aerobic exercise at 80% maximum heart rate, and resistance training consisted of two sets of 10 repetitions for 10 different exercises at 80% of one repetition maximum.
Results: All groups increased fat-free mass, strength, and aerobic fitness and decreased fat mass. No changes were observed in cytokines or perceptions of fatigue/depression. No time-group interaction was found for any fitness/body composition variable. TEE and AEE increased with the 2 + 2 group but not with the other two groups. Nonexercise training AEE (nonexercise training activity-related thermogenesis) increased significantly in the 2 + 2 group (+200 kcal · d(-1)), group 1 + 1 showed a trend for an increase (+68 kcal · d(-1)), and group 3 + 3 decreased significantly (-150 kcal · d(-1)).
Conclusion: Results indicate that 3 + 3 training may inhibit nonexercise training activity-related thermogenesis by being too time consuming and does not induce superior training adaptations to 1 + 1 and 2 + 2 training.