Factor structure of the CES-D and measurement invariance across gender in Mainland Chinese adolescents

J Clin Psychol. 2013 Sep;69(9):966-79. doi: 10.1002/jclp.21978. Epub 2013 Jun 17.


Objectives: The primary aim was to examine the depressive symptom structure of Mainland China adolescents using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).

Design: Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were simultaneously conducted to determine the structure of the CES-D in a large scale, representative adolescent samples recruited from Mainland China. Multigroup CFA (N = 5059, 48% boys, mean = 16.55±1.06) was utilized to test the factorial invariance of the depressive symptom structure, which was generated by EFA and confirmed by CFA across gender.

Results: The CES-D can be interpreted in terms of 3 symptom dimensions. Additionally, factorial invariance of the new proposed model across gender was supported at all assuming different degrees of invariance.

Conclusion: Mainland Chinese adolescents have specific depressive symptom structure, which is consistent across gender.

Keywords: CES-D; Chinese adolescent; depressive symptom; factor structure; factorial invariance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • China / epidemiology
  • Depression / diagnosis*
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / standards*
  • Psychometrics / instrumentation*
  • Sex Factors