Introduction: Obese men have an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality. Potential mechanisms include insulin and related proteins. We investigate whether a short-term caloric restriction diet in overweight/obese men with newly diagnosed PCa can lead to measurable changes in patient anthropometrics and insulin-related proteins.
Methods: Overweight and obese PCa patients choosing active surveillance or radical prostatectomy were randomized to a 6-week, caloric-restricted diet or to continue their current diet. Changes from baseline to end of study in anthropometrics, dietary constituents and serum proteins (insulin, c-peptide, IGF-1, adiponectin, IGF-BP3) were compared between the intervention and control groups using a Generalized Estimating Equation model.
Results: Nineteen patients were randomized to the intervention (N = 10) or control (N = 9) group. Men in the intervention group had a 1.7% (3.7 lbs) mean decline in weight versus 1.0% (2.0 lbs) in controls (P < 0.05), and a reduced intake of calories, total and saturated fat, protein and starch (all P < 0.1 compared to controls). There was a significant difference (P = 0.002) in mean serum IGFBP-3 between the intervention (+2.8%) and control group (-6.9%). Other biomarkers changed with the diet intervention to a degree similar to previous weight loss studies but were not statistically significant compared with controls.
Conclusion: In this small pilot study, a 6-week caloric restricted diet in men with newly diagnosed PCa produced changes in weight, diet and serum proteins possibly related to prognosis. These results support larger-scale trials testing longer-term weight loss effects on potential PCa progression biomarkers.
Keywords: diet; obesity; prostate cancer; randomized.
Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.