Longitudinal and integrative biomodeling of effector and memory immune compartments after inactivated influenza vaccination

J Immunol. 2013 Jul 15;191(2):623-31. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1203483. Epub 2013 Jun 17.


Most vaccines, including those against influenza, were developed by focusing solely on humoral response for protection. However, vaccination activates different adaptive compartments that might play a role in protection. We took advantage of the pandemic 2009 A(H1N1) influenza vaccination to conduct a longitudinal integrative multiparametric analysis of seven immune parameters in vaccinated subjects. A global analysis underlined the predominance of induction of humoral and CD4 T cell responses, whereas pandemic 2009 A(H1N1)-specific CD8 responses did not improve after vaccination. A principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering of individuals showed a differential upregulation of influenza vaccine-specific immunity including hemagglutination inhibition titers, IgA(+) and IgG(+) Ab-secreting cells, effector CD4 or CD8 T cell frequencies at day 21 among individuals, suggesting a fine-tuning of the immune parameters after vaccination. This is related to individual factors including the magnitude and quality of influenza-specific immune responses before vaccination. We propose a graphical delineation of immune determinants that would be essential for a better understanding of vaccine-induced immunity in vaccination strategies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Viral / immunology
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A / immunology
  • Immunoglobulin G / immunology
  • Immunologic Memory*
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / immunology*
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Influenza, Human / immunology*
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated