Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrinopathy of women in the reproductive age group seems to be adversely affected by associated thyroid dysfunction. Both pose independent risks of ovarian failure and pregnancy related complications.
Aims: The present study from Eastern India is, therefore, aimed to investigate the prevalence and etiology of different thyroid disorders in PCOS subjects.
Settings and design: Cross-sectional hospital based survey-single centre observational case-control study.
Materials and methods: This prospective single-center study recruited 106 female patients with hypertrichosis and menstrual abnormality among which 80 patients were defined as having PCOS according to the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria and comprised the study population. Another 80 age-matched female subjects were studied as the control population. Thyroid function and morphology were evaluated by measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine levels (free T3 and free T4), anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO Ab), clinical examination and ultrasound (USG) of thyroid gland.
Statistical analysis used: It was done by Student's t-test and Chi-square test using appropriate software (SPSS version 19).
Results: This case-control study revealed statistically significant higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis, detected in 18 patients (22.5% vs. 1.25% of control) as evidenced by raised anti-TPO antibody levels (means 28.037 ± 9.138 and 25.72 ± 8.27 respectively; P = 0.035). PCOS patients were found to have higher mean TSH level than that of the control group (4.547 ± 2.66 and 2.67 ± 3.11 respectively; P value < 0.05). There was high prevalence of goiter among PCOS patients (27.5% vs. 7.5% of control, P value > 0.001). On thyroid USG a significantly higher percentage of PCOS patients (12.5%; controls 2.5%) had hypoechoic USG pattern also compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis.
Conclusions: High prevalence of thyroid disorders in PCOS patients thus points towards the importance of early correction of hypothyroidism in the management of infertility associated with PCOS.
Keywords: Anti-thyroperoxidase antibody; autoimmune thyroiditis; hypothyroidism; polycystic ovarian syndrome.