Our recent study demonstrated that glutamine synthetase (GS) may not only serve as a glutamate-converting enzyme in glial cells, but may also function as a regulator of astrocyte migration after injury. In this report, we showed that GS expression increased in cultured rat C6 glioma cells that underwent long-term serially propagation. The stable overexpression of GS in C6 glioma cells resulted in growth arrest and motility suppression; however the stable knockdown of GS resulted in motility enhancement. In correlation with cell aggregation, N-cadherin levels increased at sites of cell-cell contact in C6 cells overexpressing GS, and decreased in C6 cells with stable GS knockdown; total N-cadherin expression levels remained unchanged in these cells. In addition, levels of p21, a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, increased, while cyclin D1 levels decreased in C6 cells overexpressing GS. Our additional studies showed that N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts were implicated in GS-induced cell growth arrest and impairment of cell migration, as evidenced by the inhibition of GS on cell growth and motility by the neutralizing anti-N-cadherin monoclonal antibody (GC-4 mAb). Collectively, these observations suggest a novel mechanism of growth regulation by GS that involves N-cadherin mediated cell-cell contact.