Degalactosylated/desialylated human serum containing GcMAF induces macrophage phagocytic activity and in vivo antitumor activity

Anticancer Res. 2013 Jul;33(7):2881-5.


Background: The group-specific component protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) has various biological activities, such as macrophage activation and antitumor activity. Clinical trials of GcMAF have been carried out for metastatic breast cancer, prostate cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer. In this study, despite the complicated purification process of GcMAF, we used enzymatically-treated human serum containing GcMAF with a considerable macrophage-stimulating activity and antitumor activity.

Results: We detected GcMAF in degalactosylated/desialylated human serum by western blotting using an anti-human Gc globulin antibody, and Helix pomatia agglutinin lectin. We also found that GcMAF-containing human serum significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages and extended the survival time of mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumors.

Conclusion: We demonstrated that GcMAF-containing human serum can be used as a potential macrophage activator for cancer immunotherapy.

Keywords: Degalactosylated/desialylated human serum; GcMAF; in vivo antitumor activity; macrophage phagocytic activity.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blotting, Western
  • Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor / metabolism
  • Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor / prevention & control*
  • Female
  • Galactose / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Macrophage Activation / drug effects*
  • Macrophage-Activating Factors / pharmacology*
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / cytology
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / drug effects*
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Phagocytosis / drug effects*
  • Serum / chemistry*
  • Sialic Acids / metabolism*
  • Vitamin D-Binding Protein / pharmacology*


  • Macrophage-Activating Factors
  • Sialic Acids
  • Vitamin D-Binding Protein
  • vitamin D-binding protein-macrophage activating factor
  • Galactose