Smoking, snoring and obstructive sleep apnea

Pneumologia. 2013 Jan-Mar;62(1):52-5.


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), with an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) > or =5 events per hour, is recognized as an important cause of medical morbidity and mortality, being associated with a wide range of significant medical consequences, including arterial hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, neurological diseases and psychological effects. Tobacco smoking is considered a predisposing factor for pulmonary and cardiovasculary diseases and a risk factor for developing OSA. Since snoring is frequent in smokers and a common symptom, even a preclinical form of OSA, it is reasonable to speculate that smoking is an independent risk factor for snoring and may be associated with OSA. Current studies have observed there is a synergistic effect between smoking and OSA, both increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease through oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and abnormal inflammatory response. OSA, itself could be responsible for nicotine addiction.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / etiology
  • Metabolic Diseases / etiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive / etiology*
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive / physiopathology
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Snoring / etiology*
  • Snoring / physiopathology