A continuous serological and bacteriological surveillance in rodents was carried out in peninsular India i.e. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu to detect the role of different species of rodents in the maintenance of active enzootic plague foci. Live rodents were collected from wild and ruderal/peri-domestic situations by digging and trapping for sera and organ samples. During 1989 to 2007 serological evidence of plague was detected in different species of rodents in peninsular India. Plague antibodies were detected in 243 sera samples in three different rodent species. Sero-positivity (0.042 percent) amongst rodents tested were found in Tatera indica cuvieri (Hardwicke) followed by Rattus rattus and Bandicota bengalensis. Regular plague surveillance work enhanced the possibility of detecting and delimiting plague foci and helped in implementing necessary preventive anti plague measures to prevent the occurrence of human plague.