Effect of short-term and long-term Brahmakumaris Raja Yoga meditation on physiological variables like heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was evaluated in 100 subjects practicing Raja Yoga meditation. All 100 subjects (33 men and 67 women) were aged 30 years and above (mean age 52.06 +/- 12.76 years). Short-term meditators (STM) (n = 27) practiced Raja Yoga meditation for duration of six months to five years (mean duration 3.37 +/- 1.67 years) and long-term meditators (LTM) (n = 73) practiced Raja Yoga meditation for more than five years (mean duration 11.19 +/- 5.13 years). The participants were asked to meditate and the physiological variables (HR, RR, SBP and DBP) were recorded twice (15 minutes and 30 minutes) after beginning of meditation. Also, the fasting blood sugar was estimated by glucometer. The study subjects did not differ significantly in age and various anthropometric characteristics such as body weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratio and fasting blood sugar. Comparison between STM and LTM showed that the changes from baseline values (from premeditation to post-meditation at 15 and 30 minutes) in LTM were not statistically significant with those in STM (P > 0.05). However, within group differences in LTM revealed that changes in the physiological variables were statistically significant when compared between pre and post meditation both at 15 and 30 minutes. The study suggests that the long-term practice of Raja Yoga meditation improves basic cardio-respiratory functions due to shifting of the autonomic balance in favor of parasympathetic instead of sympathetic system.