Identification of causative genes for hereditary dystonia and elucidation of their functions are crucial for better understanding of dystonia pathogenesis. As seen in other hereditary neurologic disorders, intra- and inter-familial clinical variations have been demonstrated in hereditary dystonia. Asymptomatic carriers can be found due to alterations in penetrance, generally reduced in succeeding generations. Current known dystonia genes include those related to dopamine metabolism, transcription factor, cytoskeleton, transport of glucose and sodium ion, etc. It has been reported that effects of deep brain stimulation can vary significantly depending on genotype. Accumulation of genotype-outcome correlations would contribute to treatment decisions for dystonia patients.