Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Basic mechanisms involved in the increased cardiovascular risk of OSAS remain unclear. Inflammation has been shown to potentially play a critical role in this association. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) in patients with OSAS. Forty-eight newly diagnosed OSAS patients and 37 nonapneic controls were enrolled in this study. Demographic data, cigarette smoking status, previous history of chronic diseases including CVD and metabolic diseases and drugs, and habits were obtained by a standardized questionnaire. All patients underwent polysomnographic evaluation. The mean age was 48.3 ± 12.3 (24-74) years in OSAS group. Median apnea-hypopnea index was 23.6 (6-91.8) and median body mass index was 30.4 (24.2-49.4) in the OSAS group. Plasma CT-1 levels in OSAS and control groups, respectively, were 12.03 ± 1.08 and 11.85 ± 1.18 pg/ml. There was no significant difference in the plasma levels of CT-1 and IL-6 between the OSAS group and the controls.