BACKGROUND. Adiponectin is a protein specific to visceral adipose tissue where its concentrations are reduced in type 2 diabetes and obesity. Many factors also determine serum levels of adiponectin such as gender, BMI, as well as diet. OBJECTIVE. To compare the effects of consuming certain key foodstuffproducts on serum adiponectin concentrations between diabetic patients and suitable controls.
Material and methods: A survey and laboratory testing was performed on 72 patients of whom (n = 21) were diabetics, whilst the control group, (n= 51) non-diabetics. Eating habits were assessed and serum adiponectin was measured in all cases.
Results: Diabetic patients had significantly lower adiponectin levels compared to the control group; respectively (23.5 +/- 21.1 microg/ml vs. 36.5 +/- 21.1 microg/ml; p = 0.02). Furthermore, women had higher concentration than men; respectively (41.3 microg/ml +/- 20.1 microg/ml vs. 22.0 microg/ml +/- 14.8 microg/ml; p = 0.000). A high consumption of foodstuffs such as vegetables, vegetable oils, coffee and tea positively correlated with adiponectin concentration in serum, whilst a negative correlation was seen with consumptions of mixed bread, fried and baked dishes, alcohol, nuts and seeds.
Conclusions: Serum adiponectin levels are related to factors such as gender, (higher in women), BMI, (higher in persons with normal body weight) and whether diabetic, (lower in people with diabetes). Multiple correlations were observed between the consumption of foodstuff product groups and serum adiponectin concentration. It is thereby suggested, that adiponectin could have a significant role to play in the treatment and prevention of diabetes and obesity.