Psychological, physical, and academic correlates of cyberbullying and traditional bullying

J Adolesc Health. 2013 Jul;53(1 Suppl):S13-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.09.018.


Purpose: To examine the relationship between children's and adolescents' experiences with cyberbullying and traditional bullying and psychological health, physical health, and academic performance.

Methods: Nine hundred thirty-one students in grades 6 through 12 completed an anonymous survey examining their experiences with cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Also included were measures of anxiety, depression, self-esteem, physical well-being, school attendance, and academic performance.

Results: Participants were categorized as belonging to one of four groups: cyber victims, cyberbullies, cyber bully/victims, and those not involved in cyberbullying. A similar categorization was done with traditional bullying. Those in the bully/victim groups (and particularly the cyber bully/victim group) had the most negative scores on most measures of psychological health, physical, health, and academic performance.

Conclusions: There appears to be a substantial, although not perfect, overlap between involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Additionally, the physical, psychological, and academic correlates of the two types of bullying resembled one another.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anxiety / epidemiology
  • Bullying / psychology*
  • Child
  • Data Collection
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Internet*
  • Male
  • Pennsylvania / epidemiology
  • Psychological Tests
  • Self Concept
  • Young Adult