Flowering time regulation: photoperiod- and temperature-sensing in leaves

Trends Plant Sci. 2013 Oct;18(10):575-83. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2013.05.003. Epub 2013 Jun 18.


Plants monitor changes in photoperiod and temperature to synchronize their flowering with seasonal changes to maximize fitness. In the Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering pathway, the circadian clock-regulated components, such as FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 and CONSTANS, both of which have light-controlled functions, are crucial to induce the day-length specific expression of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene in leaves. Recent advances indicate that FT transcriptional regulation is central for integrating the information derived from other important internal and external factors, such as developmental age, amount of gibberellic acid, and the ambient temperature. In this review, we describe how these factors interactively regulate the expression of FT, the main component of florigen, in leaves.

Keywords: FLOWERING LOCUS T; ambient temperature; florigen; flowering; gibberellic acid; photoperiod.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Flowers / genetics
  • Flowers / physiology*
  • Photoperiod*
  • Plant Leaves / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Temperature*
  • Time Factors