Willingness to pay and benefit-cost analysis of modern contraceptives in Nigeria

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 Aug;122(2):94-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2013.03.024. Epub 2013 Jun 19.


Objective: To determine the willingness to pay (WTP) and the benefit-cost of modern contraceptives delivered through the public sector in Nigeria.

Methods: Data were collected from 4517 randomly selected households. The WTP for the 6 major contraceptive methods available in the public sector was elicited. Logistic regression was used to determine whether the decision to state a positive WTP amount was valid; Tobit regression was used to test the validity of the elicited WTP amounts. For each contraceptive, 3 BCR values were computed, based on the official unit price, the unit cost per couple-year of protection (CYP), and the average actual expenditure for contraceptives in the month preceding the interview.

Results: The mean WTP for the different contraceptives varied by socioeconomic status and geographic (urban versus rural) location (P<0.01). The BCR analysis showed that the benefits of providing contraceptives through the public sector far outweighed the costs, except for female condoms, where the CYP-based BCR was 0.9.

Conclusion: The benefits of providing contraceptives outweigh the costs, making public sector investment worthwhile. The median WTP amounts, which reflect the ideal upper thresholds for pricing, indicate that cost recovery is feasible for all contraceptives.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Contraception / economics
  • Contraception / methods*
  • Contraceptive Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Contraceptive Agents / economics
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Financing, Personal*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Nigeria
  • Public Sector / economics
  • Rural Population / statistics & numerical data
  • Social Class
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data
  • Young Adult


  • Contraceptive Agents