With the development of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have received increased attention. Multiple studies indicate that lncRNAs act not only as the intermediary between DNA and protein but also as important protagonists of cellular functions. LncRNAs can regulate gene expression in many ways, including chromosome remodeling, transcription and post-transcriptional processing. Moreover, the dysregulation of lncRNAs has increasingly been linked to many human diseases, especially in cancers. Here, we reviewed the rapidly advancing field of lncRNAs and described the relationship between the dysregulation of lncRNAs and human diseases, highlighting the specific roles of lncRNAs in human diseases.
Keywords: ALD; ATXN8 opposite strand; ATXN8OS; BACE1 antisense RNA; BACE1-AS; CDKN2B antisense RNA 1; CDKN2B-AS1; CPT; DDC; DHFR; GAS5; H19; H19, imprinted maternally expressed transcript; HCC; HOTAIR; HOX transcript antisense RNA; HULC; Human diseases; LncRNAs; Long non-coding RNAs; MALAT1; MDB; MDS; MEG3; MPN; MREs; Mallory–Denk bodies; Mechanism; NASH; PCAT-1; PCGEM1; PRC2; PTENP; PcG; Polycomb Repressive Complex 2; Polycomb group; RMRP; RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease; RNA pol II; RNA polymerase II; RNA upstream of Bmp4 expressed in the inner ear; Rubie; UCA1/CUDR; UTRs; X chromosome inactivation; X inactive specific transcript; XCI; XIST; alcoholic liver disease; anti-NOS2 nitric oxide synthase 2; anti-NOS2A; camptothecin; ceRNA; competitive endogenous RNA; diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6,-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate; dihydrofolate reductase; growth arrest-specific 5; hepatocellular carcinoma; highly up-regulated in liver cancer long non-coding RNA; interfering RNAs; long noncoding RNAs; maternally expressed 3; metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1; miRNA; microRNA; microRNA response elements; myelodysplastic syndrome; myeloproliferative neoplasm; nonalcohlic steatohepatitis; phosphatase and tensin homolog pseudogene 1; prostate cancer associated transcript 1; prostate-specific transcript; s-IBM; siRNAs; sporadic inclusion-body myositis; untranslated regions; urothelial cancer associated 1.
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