Urinary tract infections in kidney transplant recipients: role of gender, urologic abnormalities, and antimicrobial prophylaxis

Ann Transplant. 2013 May 6;18:195-204. doi: 10.12659/AOT.883901.

Abstract

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI), the most common infectious complications after kidney transplantation, are associated with poor allograft survival. Identifying its predisposing factors is therefore remarkably important in order to optimize prevention strategies.

Material and methods: A retrospective study was performed in a cohort of patients who received kidney transplantation between June 2007 and June 2009. Factors associated with development of UTI were assessed.

Results: The population consisted of 301 patients, with majority receiving allograft from living donors (85%). A total of 101 patients (34%) developed at least one episode of UTI, and 25% of the episodes occurred during the first year after transplantation. Risk factors associated with increased risk of UTI were female gender, recurrent UTI prior to transplant, and presence of urological abnormalities. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) use was associated with a lower risk of UTI, including a lower risk of recurrent UTI.

Conclusions: In this cohort of predominantly living donor kidney transplant recipients, we report a high incidence of UTI, despite our practice of early ureteral and Foley catheter removal. Female gender and prior recurrent UTI or urological abnormalities were predisposing factors, while TMP-SMZ use had a protective role. These clinical relevant findings should guide clinicians in optimizing prevention strategies against UTI in kidney transplant recipients.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary / pharmacology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology*
  • Postoperative Complications / prevention & control
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination / pharmacology
  • Urinary Tract Infections / etiology*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / prevention & control

Substances

  • Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary
  • Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination