Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a family of mesenchymal mitogens with important functions during the embryonal development and in the control of tissue homeostasis in the adult. The PDGF isoforms exert their effects by binding to α-and β-tyrosine kinase receptors. Overactivity of PDGF signaling has been linked to the development of certain malignant and non-malignant diseases, including atherosclerosis and various fibrotic diseases. Different types of PDGF antagonists have been developed, including inhibitory monoclonal antibodies and DNA aptamers against PDGF isoforms and receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Beneficial effects have been recorded using such inhibitors in preclinical models and in patients with certain malignant as well as non-malignant diseases. The present communication summarizes the use of PDGF antagonists in the treatment of non-malignant diseases.