Standard examination and adjunctive techniques for detection of oral premalignant and malignant lesions

J Calif Dent Assoc. 2013 May;41(5):329-31, 334-42.


This article outlines how to perform a standard comprehensive extraoral and intraoral examination and the existing commercially available adjunctive techniques for the early detection of oral cancer and premalignant lesions. Visualization-based techniques (e.g., autofluorescence and chemiluminescence), toluidine blue vital staining, cytopathologic tests and high-risk human papillomavirus testing are discussed in detail, including the indications and protocols for use, their advantages and disadvantages and clinical cases.

MeSH terms

  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis*
  • Early Detection of Cancer / instrumentation
  • Early Detection of Cancer / methods*
  • Fluorescence
  • Humans
  • Leukoplakia, Oral / diagnosis
  • Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis
  • Tolonium Chloride


  • Tolonium Chloride