Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinal trajectories of parental involvement and adolescent adherence to the Type 1 diabetes regimen, to determine whether changes in multiple facets of parental involvement over time predicted subsequent changes in adolescents' adherence, and to examine whether adolescent self-efficacy mediated the effect of parental involvement on adherence.
Method: Two hundred fifty-two adolescents (M age = 12.49 years, SD = 1.53; 53.6% females) diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes mellitus, their mothers, and 188 fathers were enrolled in a 2.5-year longitudinal study. Across 5 time points, up to 252 adolescents and their parents completed measures of adherence, parental involvement (diabetes monitoring, behavioral involvement in diabetes management, and acceptance), and adolescent diabetes self-efficacy.
Results: Using multilevel modeling, analyses indicated significant average declines over time in adherence and most indicators of parental involvement. Lagged multilevel models indicated that declines in mothers' and fathers' acceptance and diabetes monitoring predicted subsequent declines in adolescents' adherence. Additional analyses revealed that longitudinal associations between both maternal acceptance and diabetes monitoring and subsequent adolescent adherence were mediated by adolescents' self-efficacy.
Conclusions: Results of this study, which were largely consistent across reporters, highlight the importance of maintaining parental involvement in diabetes across adolescence and suggest that parental involvement is beneficial for adolescents' adherence, in part, because it contributes to higher self-efficacy for diabetes management among adolescents.
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